The DC Universe’s Transition to Digital Media

In my opinion, without traditional media, there would have never been the creation of digital media that is so popular in 2020. With that being said, if the Original Seven members (Superman, Batman, Wonder Woman, the Flash, Green Lantern, Aquaman, and Martian Manhunter) of the Justice League were never introduced together as a cohesive team in a comic book, we would have never seen the digital masterpiece of bringing the team together on the big screen. Sure, the 2017 Justice League movie was not the best film, but it was an impressive feat to gather a star-studded cast to portray the fan-favorite group of superheroes that could potentially rival the success of Marvel’s The Avengers.

The world of DC superheroes is an extremely vast one that spans over multiple different forms of media, but now these movies, television shows, and even comics are accessible through the use of digital media as opposed to traditional media. With the introduction of the streaming service known as “DC Universe”, the companies DC Entertainment and Warner Brothers Digital Networks have been able to consolidate most, if not all, under one metaphorical roof that requires fans and audiences to pay for access to DC content. For example, the Justice League is an essential part of the content that DC creates, whether it be the movies, television shows, comics, or even video games.

The picture on the right is the logo for the DC Universe streaming service.

When it comes to digital media, it removes the physical and animate aspect of the content, which allows the audience and consumer to carry that content with them no matter where they are and no matter what device they use to view the content. Phones, tablets, laptops, desktop computers and even smart televisions are all capable of eliminating the physical component of media and allows the content to become more of an on-demand service so the consumer can choose when and where they would like to be for it. Also depending on which companies hold the rights to show whatever content they like, it is possible for DC content to be scattered across many digital services, which enables more consumers to see different modes.

Digital media, especially the increase in streaming services over the last few years, has been the sole reason why cord cutting has become so prominent. With more cable channels turning away from cable services and moving into the digital media realm, it goes to show how large of a movement it is to adapt to the new media environment in 2020. With that being said, the Justice League movie has gone from movie theaters to physical copies, BluRay and DVD, and then hit different streaming services at a cheaper price than both seeing the movie in theaters and purchasing a physical copy. From a consumer’s perspective, using digital media is cheaper and avoids the hassle of going to a store or theater to buy or see the movie. For example, Amazon Prime allows consumers to rent the film for $3.99 and purchase it for $9.99, whereas for one movie theater company, Regal Cinema, it costs anywhere from $13 to $16.50 for adults to see a movie (Bridges, et al.).

Next, the digital version has the capabilities of doing certain things that traditional media cannot keep up with in today’s media age. As stated earlier, the biggest difference between digital media and traditional media is that digital media is accessible anywhere as long as the person has access to a smart device, which almost carries around with them on a day-to-day basis. With traditional media, it is very limited because it requires the physical aspect, not just possessing a smart device, the person would need to have the Blu-ray or DVD disc or the paperback comic book in order to consume the content. Also, another essential component of digital media is that it is much easier and cheaper to use. Instead of driving to a store or waiting for a product to be delivered, a consumer can download an app, pay an inexpensive monthly fee or one-time purchase fee, and immediately have access to their desired content.

In comparison to the traditional media version of the movie, the digital media version may actually detract from the narrative of the Justice League movie. The reason that it may detract from the overall story and narrative of the movie is because with the disc version there is a menu with a lot of other features, such as a deleted scenes option, that could contribute to the narrative but were not included within the movie itself. However, the narrative between that of a comic book and a movie is a fairly large difference because comic books are released in editions and it is virtually impossible to replicate all of those stories into one movie. Along with that last point, there are so many different Justice League comic book series, whether it is the New-52 or the Rebirth era that depends on when it was written, that scriptwriters can incorporate in order to make a film but ideas can be taken and put together in a cohesive fashion to make a film.

At the same time, the digital film may also detract from the narrative of the comic books and other content published about the Justice League. The producers and scriptwriters could potentially change the narrative of one character or of the entire movie if they want to branch out from the comics in order to tell their own story of the Justice League. For example, one of the largest differences of the narrative was casting Jason Momoa for the role of Aquaman since that character is normally portrayed as a caucasian male with blonde hair. Now, that was not a judgement of Momoa’s portrayal of Aquaman, but rather a large change in the eyes of the audience when the film was released.

The next two parts of my analysis of DC’s content being converted from traditional media sources into digital media are very closely intertwined with one another, while somehow also having a lot of differences. First, when it comes to any form of media, there will be at least one ethical dilemma that follows. With both traditional media, there will always be the conundrum of pirating DC’s content, whether it is films, TV shows, or comics. There are illegal websites everywhere that contain DC’s content without going through the proper channels to obtain it legally. Pirating does not only happen to DC’s content, but just about anything media related that could possibly be stolen or used illegally for another person’s gain. So does the digital version contribute to larger ethical dilemmas? Of course it does, but do you not think that governments could shut down all pirated sites permanently if they had the time and resources to do so? As a result of this, pirating will continue to happen on a global scale no matter if it is traditional or digital media.

This the homepage of DC’s streaming service that is subscription-based.

Second, is digital media accessible and fair to a wide user community? To put it simply, yes and no… In the year 2020, it seems as though household after household is cutting their cable cords and making the switch to one or multiple streaming services. This is actually true, as Toni Fitzgerald mentions in her article featured on Forbes, “And the average American subscriber watches 3.4 services. For each one, they pay an average $8.53 per month. That would total a monthly bill of $29. That’s less than a third of the average monthly cable bill of $107”. If consumers have currently pay for slightly more than three services per month, DC Universe could easily be one of the services people are paying for. Although it seems like a lot of people are switching over to streaming services, there are some who do not have the financial resources to afford either cable or even a single monthly subscription.

On the other hand, there are ways around the paywall of digital media services. Examples are account sharing a service with another, utilizing a service’s “free-trial period” (which DC Universe offers), and pirating as a last resort. I am not condoning pirating but for those who cannot afford a streaming service, it may be their only option to view and watch content that they are interested in. DC Universe’s monthly cost is $7.99, which is a fairly reasonable cost for all the content that they offer their audience, but people that are interested are welcome to click on the blue, “free trial” box in the top-right corner of the websites homepage.

Also, DC’s overall accessibility is partly due to the fact that its content is spread out among other streaming services as well. As much content as DC Universe has consolidated on one site, DC Entertainment and Warner Brothers can sell the rights to separate companies in order to increase its profits and potential audiences. According to a Forbes article written by Rob Salkowitz, DC’s content distribution is ultimately up to its parent company, “AT&T—now the parent company of WarnerMedia and its divisions, including DC Comics (previously known as DC Entertainment), HBO, Turner, and Warner Bros.”. As a result, AT&T is able to sell certain content rights and licensing to other companies as a means of maximizing profits, whether it is the movies, TV shows, comics, action figures, video games, and even the new amusement park rides at Six Flags parks.

The picture to the left shows almost all of the sites that the 2017 Justice League film is digitally accessible.

Lastly, in this case, the digital media is sending a clear message to its viewers. The message is simply that digital media (as a whole) is accessible anywhere and anytime as long as the user has a device capable of streaming or accessing the content. Another message is the simplicity, effectiveness, and hassle-free process of viewing and watching the content that interests them without having to go to a store to buy a physical copy that will most likely cost more than the digital version. Digital media is a time-saver, as well as a life-saver. It has become the most dominant aspect in the media industry within the last few years that traditional media outlets are looking for ways to adapt and acclimate themselves within a new, digital media industry.

Next, these are clips and gifs from the film that accurately describe my feelings at the moment of completion.

Me avoiding the punch of procrastination and submitting my final project two days early.
My initial reaction to the COVID-19 outbreak.
An accurate representation of my group of friends and I strolling into summer is going to look like.

Further Reading/Viewing:


An American Tragedy

On June 27th, 1994, TIME Magazine’s edition featured a photo illustration of OJ Simpson’s mugshot on the cover that was done by Matt Mahurin. Both TIME Magazine and Newsweek had the mugshot on their cover page, but in a side-by-side comparison the TIME Magazine cover noticeably showed that Simpson’s skin color was made even darker.

I believe the alteration to this photo was completely unethical because the case was already extremely controversial due to racial tension. To make an African-American man’s skin darker than it actually is was not necessary and is unethical, even Newsweek‘s cover did not alter Simpson’s skin color for their cover. While it was unnecessary and unethical, I do not believe Mike Mahurin meant any harm with his edit of the mugshot. It seems to me that Mahurin was attempting to be a visual storyteller by darkening Simpson’s skin color in the mugshot to make the photo more dramatic than the unedited version.

Cummins & Partners

For my Webby Award Winner review, I chose to look at the Cummins & Partners website, This website was a People’s Voice winner of the 2019 Webby Award for the best user experience. In my opinion, this is one of the most aesthetically pleasing and unique designs that is also mobile-friendly, along with minimal accessibility or user experience limitations.

Opening video on Cummins & Partners’ home page.

The first page of the Cummins & Partners’ website is their landing page and home page. The website has an interesting design because the video above is the first thing that can be seen on the company’s landing page, which shows examples of what the company does and what makes them so unique. The top-left corner of the home page has the company’s logo and the top-right corner has a drop-down menu option in order to easily access the other pages on the website. Continuing down the home page, there is a mission statement that states: “We have a history of taking brands, giving them vision and making them market leaders, viral sensations, culturally relevant, even part of the vernacular…”. Below their mission statement, they say that what makes them so successful is independent thinking, which leads the user to a “What Is Independent Thinking?” button that takes them from the home page to the About page.

Down farther on the landing/home page shows examples of what different advertisement campaigns they have helped their clients with. Examples of these include Jeep, Asis, Specsavers, and Gippsland Dairy, as well as more examples that displayed on the Work page. Lastly, they present the user with the logos of all the companies that they have partnered with.

At the very bottom of every page, there is an opportunity for the user to click on a link to any of the website’s pages, as well as links to all of the company’s social media pages.

In the drop-down menu, the About page is the second option on the list. The top of the page says, “There is nothing more valuable than independent thinking”, which is the reason Cummins & Partners is much different. Also, the company claims that, “Businesses need independent trusted advisors that are willing to tell them the truth”. On their About page, they also include what their company offers and their management team.

Next, the Work page provides examples and links to every advertising campaign that they have done for their clients. At the top of the page, the highlight their latest work, which was “Priceless Eyes” for Specsavers.

The fourth page of the Cummins & Partners website was the News Page. The purpose of this page presents the user with links to stories that discuss the company’s partnerships with their client companies and what the two companies hope to accomplish. An example is the news that “FCA Australia re-appoints Cummins & Partners to Jeep, Fiat and Alfa Romeo”.

After the News page, the company has a Culture page that reveals what they have done to become such a successful company. At the beginning of the page, it states that “Culture is everything”, which shows the work itself is not the sole focus for the company and the company’s culture is extremely important. Also, the page states that they key to building a successful company with a good culture is, “Hire great people who also happen to be really great at what they do”. Cummins & Partners presents its users with an email to contact if they are interested in a career with the company on the page as well. Lastly, the page shows the viewers the benefits and unique opportunities for the employees of the company, as shown in the video below.

The Benefits and Unique Opportunities For Employees

The last page on the website is the company’s Contact page, which gives its users a chance to contact Cummins & Partners directly depending on the user’s location. As shown in the picture to the left, the company has three offices across two continents but is one network. This page also directs its users to the address, phone number, and email of the Melbourne, Sydney, and New York locations.

Another great feature about the Cummins & Partners’ website is that it is mobile-friendly as well. One of the limitations of viewing it on a cellphone browser is that the website is slightly less interactive on a smaller screen. An example of this is the video towards the top of my review is not accessible on the mobile version of the website. One good adjustment the mobile-friendly website makes is the viewing is more vertical, rather than the horizontal display on a computer or laptop screen. Overall, it is almost the same experience on a mobile-friendly version but it does lose some of its interactive aspects during the transition to a smaller screen.

For a website that won an award for its user experience in 2019, running the website through Wave Web Aim tool found that there are still errors in its design and accessibility. As a result of this accessibility tool, it found that there are ten errors alone on the home page, four of which are due to missing alternative text and another four are due to empty links. Even an award-winning website can still miss certain accessibility features that could help user experience.

As I mentioned earlier, the Cummins & Partners website has an extremely fascinating and unique design that appeals to me and should appeal to anyone who visits the website. The website’s use of visuals make up most of the design and content creation, as well as the use of text to go along with each of the their visual elements. Also, I feel as though this website is widely accessible to most, but with most of their website design relying on visual cues it would be tough for people that are visually-impaired to navigate through the site. Plus, the website’s intended audience is more than likely potential clients that are interested in what Cummins & Partners can offer to grow their brand.

After reviewing this website, it has given me a lot of insight on what I could possibly do with my very own website. I would love to add more visual aspects, whether it is video or photos, to my website when I get the chance. On the other hand, I would not model my website after Cummins & Partners’ because our messages are very different, but I would not mind the company helping me build my brand and my website to its maximum potential.

For Further Reading: “Cummins & Partners” –

Cultural Atlas of Australia

Cultural Atlas of America landing page

For this Website Review Assignment, the site I will analyze is the Cultural Atlas of Australia, The picture on the right is the landing page of the website. As you can see, at the top are the multiple pages that users can use to navigate throughout the website. Also, there is a search bar that allows users to search specific information they are looking to find on the website. Along with those features, the landing page has a welcoming message that serves as an About by describing what the website does.

As previously mentioned, the landing page has a brief message for those wondering what the Cultural Atlas of Australia has to offer them. The message explains that the website consists of an interactive digital map that marks the locations that appear in popular Australian media, such as films, novels, and plays. At the end of the small paragraph, it also offers the viewer an option to click on the word “map” that will take you to the picture below without having to click on the Map page in the header.

As we move from the home page to the next, it is the Map page. The interactive map is what the website revolves around for the most part. The map consists of the world, but mainly of Australia and its surrounding regions. It shows the user all of the locations where certain media, whether it is films, plays, or novels, was created, but also shows where the narrative or shooting of video took place. On the left of the interactive map, users are able to filter the results for what type of media they are searching for, the location type, the state, when it was published, and a search bar to look-up keywords.

Interactive Map page

Another feature of the interactive map is the ability for users to see the Google Maps view from what the landscape and environment looks like. With this feature, it enables the user to visually see the landscape where the play, film, or book actually takes place. This provides the users with an extremely cool experience, which the creators did a good job with, and does not force the users to travel to Australia when they can see the landscape from the comfort of their own homes.

Next is the Showcase page. The only thing on that page is a link labeled “Mapping Ecological Themes in Australian Film and Literature”. This page leads the reader to six different case studies about the exploitation of resources in many areas of Australia. My sole issue with the Showcase page is that unless the website administrator was planning on adding more links, it should just take you right to the six PDF’s of the case studies on natural resource exploitation in Australia.

Frequently Asked Questions page

The third page is the FAQs, or Frequently Asked Questions. I feel as though most websites do not have this page, but I like the fact that Cultural Atlas of Australia does. The website has an extremely interesting concept with the use of its interactive map and other various features that the users may not understand how to properly use the site. Also, the FAQs page enables the users with the information on how they can contribute, whether it is a new narrative or location, a photograph, or correcting incorrect information.

Then, there is the About page. Although there was a brief description of the website’s goal and purpose on the landing page, there is an entire page to describe the website. This About page consists of a synopsis, ways to contribute just as the FAQs page discussed, its target audience, and how it works. After the About page, the website has a Contact page, which allows the user to contact the creators of the website, as well more opportunities to contribute to the site. Lastly, the last page on the website is notifying the user that there is an application for both Apple, Android, and Google products, called The CultureMap Mobile Application. The digital atlas app allows its users to access the same interactive map that has over two-hundred films, novels, and plays that feature Australian places.

The CultureMap Mobile Application page

Also on the About page, the creators provide a statement with what they hope their technology can offer. The page states, “The Cultural Atlas of Australia is an interactive digital map designed to meet the needs of anyone interested in tracing the ways in which Australian places and spaces have been represented in fictional texts.” The page eventually further explains how users can find specific results and the information they are seeking by visiting this website.

For those interested in what the Cultural Atlas of Australia has to offer, this is the perfect website for them. People who are interested in Australian geography and culture can use this website in order to plan a literary tour, visit film sites, and research landscape and locations. Also, giving people the opportunity to interact with the website, which in this case is with the map, might entice more people to visit the site. Plus, the creators allow visitors the chance to contribute to the website and the ability to keep the website growing. Although it is great for people who are able to navigate it and enjoy the content, it is not accessible and navigational for everyone. One group of people who may be unable to properly use this website would be the visually impaired because the Cultural Atlas of Australia does rely on an interactive map for its users to experience.

The Cultural Atlas of Australia is a very comprehensive and complete website. It encompasses so many different aspects that all come together quite well to create a great, interactive website. One potential bias of the website is that the interactive map does not consist certain forms of media, such as poetry, short stories, television series, documentaries, and biographies. I would rule that this is not a legitimate bias due to the fact that the creators acknowledge these mediums’ absence from the Cultural Atlas of Australia, and are possibly open to adding them in the nearby future as the site continues to develop.

The design and structure behind the Cultural Atlas of Australia is certainly only achievable through the website and app. I do not believe other forms of media would be able to replicate or create their own digital atlas. Other forms of media can possess an atlas but none could possibly be as interactive as the digital atlas that is pictured above. The main difference between most atlases and the one I have analyzed is the obvious fact that it is digital. The ability for readers to click on multiple markers and navigate between them with ease is what separates the Cultural Atlas of Australia from all of the others that are not digital.

Overall, I really enjoy the concept of the Cultural Atlas of Australia and I have never seen another website quite like it when it comes to being this interactive. Aside from the digital map, the website is well constructed, is easy to navigate, and is aesthetically pleasing. The background is of a desert in Australia, the top of the page is a piece of a map, and the content on each page looks to be on worn-down pieces of paper. I feel that this is the perfect website for people interested in Australian geography and culture but could be interesting and informational for people who are not as knowledgeable on the subject, such as myself.

For Further Reading: “Cultural Atlas of Australia” –

The Beginning of Fantasy Football

Could you imagine a world without fantasy football? Would you want to miss the excitement of who the first pick will be year after year? I wouldn’t.

Without the creation of the “Greater Oakland Professional Pigskin Prognosticators League”, fantasy football would not the popular entity it is today. Organizations, such as Yahoo Fantasy, FanDuel, or Draft Kings, would not be the prominent sites without Bill Winkenbach’s idea in 1962.

Fantasy Football - Leader board UI
“Fantasy Football – Leader board UI” by Kevin Guisarde is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 

Bay area businessman and minority-owner of the Oakland Raiders, Bill Winkenbach, along with Raiders public-relations director Bill Tunnell and Oakland Tribune sportswriter Scott Stirling met in a New York hotel while the team traveled on the East Coast to cities such as New York, Buffalo, and Boston. The purpose of this meeting was to discuss the rules for the inaugural season of the “Greater Oakland Professional Pigskin Prognosticators League”, or the GOPPPL, which started the following football season with eight teams. The draft took place in a room in Winkenbach’s basement.

One of the men involved was Andrew Mousalimas, a bar manager and one of the original members of the GOPPPL. Mousalimas went on to open up his own bar, the Kings X in Oakland, and actually started his own league there. Before Mousalimas began his new league, he drafted George Blanda, the quarterback for the Houston Oilers of the American Football League (AFL), and although Blanda made it to the AFL championship game, Mousalimas still managed to come in last place in the first season of fantasy football.

Now, after over 50 years, millions of people are signing up for fantasy football leagues each season. The biggest difference between today and 1962 is that the scoring and roster sizes are much different and online drafting was created, but one aspect that hasn’t changed the fans’ passion for the sport of football.

For Further Reading: Greater Oakland Professional Pigskin Prognosticators League – “I should’ve taken Jim Brown” –

Digital Identity Mapping

Mapping my digital identity was not the easiest task, especially since my digital life revolves around mainly the same outlets, at least that is what I thought. Using Google to research myself and my digital identity allowed me to understand myself so much more than I previously had. It was actually surprising how much of my information was out there on the internet and it is available to anyone who searches my name on Google. To think that people’s private or personal information could be readily available to the public at any given moment was a shocking and scary realization for me.

            When I went through the first step, the digital identity mapping form, for the first time, all I could come up with are all of the social media sites and texting that I use on a day-to-day basis. Scrolling through Google allowed me to see that my digital identity is spread out among so many different sources, most of which I have seemed to forgotten about over the years. As I previously mentioned, all I really knew about myself digitally was through my use of social media, but for what is being said about me, there were so many results that I found on Google that said otherwise. At least for what is being said about me, mainly dealt all of the sports and activities I have competed or participated it. Examples of this are Elite Prospects, MaxPreps, Pointstreak, and the Democrat & Chronicle, all of which detailed my high school hockey career, RDSL and RDYSL for my travel soccer, B Lax Five for high school lacrosse, and PBFL 2017 or Hot Stove, which are activities I participate in with my friends.

            Although it is more than just social media where things are said about me, social media still dominates my digital identity. Whether it is expressing, publishing, details, or my audience, social media, specifically Twitter, Instagram, Snapchat, and Facebook, consume most of those aspects. Within those four aspects, there are other forms of digital media that add to my usage of social media, such as Google mail, texting and phone conversations, and Discord, which gives other people the ability to contact me if they can find that information somewhere in the depths of a Google search. On that same note, I too am capable of finding peoples’ information and contacting them, so I am not the only who’s information is not protected on the internet.

            One thing I noticed about my digital identity is that it is not much different than my offline identity. Now, I believe that I am trying to represent myself more professionally because I am graduating within the next year and have to be ready to assimilate into the workforce. There were still some things that I found in my Google search that reflect my childhood and I am not too proud to have found, but I was not the one who created what I had found. I realized that the internet does not allow anyone to truly get rid of their past, especially digitally, but I can make my identity more professional by reshaping what I share and what media I use to represent myself.

            Secondly, I did not actually learn that much about myself as a person but I saw that there is a lot more information about me out there that I forgot about or simply did not know about. It was also extremely weird to see how many of my Twitter and Facebook pictures are on Google images, which is not only pictures that I shared but other pictures with me in them that were shared by others. Ultimately, I learned that there is so much more to my digital identity than I originally thought and more than I could have ever imagined.

            Next, my life relies on various sources of media, which makes my online life multimodal. Whether it is social media, websites, a video game console, or a streaming service, these are all different modes of media that my life depends on every day. Examples of multimodality can be Twitter or Instagram, Xbox or PlayStation, and Apple Music or Amazon, which are forms of media that I subscribe to and pay for.

            Lastly, my main concern when it comes to not only my digital identity, but also the identity of others, is that there are already tons of peoples’ personal data that is widely accessible all over the internet through the use of a simple Google search. I am genuinely worried that over the next few years, as multiple types of media control and possess everyone’s data, more and more private information will be leaked onto the internet. As a result of this, my digital identity along with everyone else’s will be compromised, corrupted, and available to anyone around the world, which could include any social media account, credit card, bank statements, or any other form of someone’s identity. This would make it much easier for people to steal one another’s identities and could ruin a lot of peoples’ lives in the process.

Top 5 Things About SUNY Oswego

Why high school students should choose to further their education at SUNY Oswego:

  1. The campus is small so you probably will not have any troubles getting lost.
  2. SUNY Oswego has a wide variety of bachelors and masters programs, as well as a long list of majors and minors to choose from.
  3. Whether it is a fraternity or a sports team, there are so many organizations to join that peak your interest and help establish connections that could last a lifetime.
  4. Class sizes are fairly small compared to larger colleges and universities and professors are here to guide you in the right path.
  5. Off-campus life is fun and exciting, but if you are not into that environment, the college offers events, such as sports games and live performances, that boost your social life.

Why my grandparents should be proud because I chose SUNY Oswego:

  1. SUNY Oswego offers one of the best Broadcasting and Mass Communications programs in the state of New York.
  2. There are a lot of resources on campus, whether it is the library, Center for Experiential Learning, or the Writing Center.
  3. I have had the opportunities to become more involved on campus and gain practical experience through internships and hosting a radio show.
  4. The courses here are geared toward the students and have fueled my interests even further. The professors are also extremely helpful and welcome any questions.
  5. I have made some very good friends and connections that have become my support system here at college and they will be there for me in a time of need.